Rick discusses methane capture, the process of evacuations of natural gas in pipeline operations, reducing global greenhouse gas emissions, and achieving environmental benefits and cost reduction.
In this episode, you will learn about compressor technology used to conduct methane capture as well as how it connects to the pipeline and stores essential data, showing the benefits and overall ease of using the equipment.
Methane Capture vs. Methane Venting Show Notes, Links, and Insider Terms:
- Rick Kay is the Chief Operating Officer at Onboard Dynamics, Inc.. Connect with Rick on LinkedIn.
- Onboard Dynamics is leading the climate-tech revolution with the introduction of its unique, patented natural gas compression technology. This mobile, scalable, affordable technology platform enables its customers to achieve economic value and environmental benefits by simplifying the compression and movement of natural gas
- Natural Gas Compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume.
- Pipeline Evacuation is transferring gas from valve sections being removed from service into active sections of pipeline.
- Tube Trailers are trucks that haul Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). Natural Gas is compressed up to pressures of 248 bar (~3,600 psig) into long cylinders that are stacked on a trailer that the truck hauls. This gives the appearance of long tubes, hence the name tube trailer.
- Meter Run is an assembly consisting of an orifice plate with flanges and calibrated upstream and downstream pipes.
- Upstream is the operation stage in the oil and gas industry that involves exploration and production.
- Regulator is a control device that maintains a defined pressure of a system by cutting off the flow of a gas or liquid when it reaches a set pressure.
- PSI is the measurement of pressure to determine the desired flow rate.
- PSIG is pounds per square gauge, which is a pressure measurement that is measured relative to ambient atmospheric pressure.
- Threadolet are pipe fittings that can supply an outlet from a larger pipe to a smaller one.
- Vent is a controlled release of gasses into the atmosphere during production or maintenance.
- MCF is the acronym representing one thousand cubic feet, derived from the Roman numeral M for 1,000, combined with cubic feet (CF) for volumetric determination of natural gas.
- MSCF (often shortened to MCF) represents the basic unit of measurement for natural gas in commerce in the U.S. “One Thousand Standard Cubic Feet”, with the word “Standard” indicating that the reported volume of the compressible gas has been mathematically adjusted to a contractual standard pressure and temperature.
- PIPES Act of 2020 (Protecting Our Infrastructure of Pipelines and Enhancing Safety Act of 2020) was signed on December 27, 2020. This bipartisan law strengthens PHMSA’s safety authority and includes many provisions that will help PHMSA fulfill its mission of protecting people and the environment by advancing the safe transportation of energy and other hazardous materials.
- EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) is an independent organization within the federal U.S. government designed to take measures to protect people and the environment.
- HMI (Human Machine Interface) is the user interface that connects an operator to the controller in pipeline operations.
- ESG (Environmental, Social, and Governance) refers to the sustainability movement in oil and gas to continue operating safely, in compliance, and in a responsible manner to do no harm while achieving business objectives.
Methane Capture vs. Methane Venting Full Episode Transcript:
Russel Treat: Welcome to the Pipeliners Podcast, Episode 259, sponsored by Gas Certification Institute, providing standard operating procedures, training, and software tools for custody transfer measurement and field operations professionals. Find out more about GCI at gascertification.com.
Announcer: The Pipeliners Podcast, where professionals, Bubba geeks, and industry insiders share their knowledge and experience about technology, projects, and pipeline operations. And now, your host, Russel Treat.
Russel: Thanks for listening to the Pipeliners Podcast. I appreciate you taking the time, and to show that appreciation, we give away a customized YETI tumbler to one listener every episode.
This week, our winner is Terry Anderson with ONEOK. Congratulations, Terry. Your YETI is on its way. To learn how you can win this signature prize, stick around until the end of the episode. This week, Rick Kay from Onboard Dynamics joins us to talk about methane capture versus venting it.
Rick, welcome to the Pipeliners Podcast.
Rick Kay: Thanks, Russel. Thanks for having me here, and thanks for doing the Pipeliner Podcast. I listen to them every once in a while, and they’re very informative, so thanks for doing this.
Russel: Great. Well, thanks for the plug. Before we get going, I wanted to ask how you got into pipelining and how you got into methane capture.
Rick: It’s a funny story. My father actually worked for El Paso Natural Gas and Northwest Pipeline, Williams Corporation, for over 30 years. As a young kid, I rode around in his pickup. They used to let us do that back then. I rode around in his pickup with him on the pipeline jobs quite a bit, and so I was familiar with it.
I saw some neat things. I watched them lay pipes with the helicopters and all kinds of stuff. It was cool. Then when I was in high school, I actually worked there during the summers and was what they called summer help. It was funny, my dad was asked one time how I was doing, and he said, “Well, summer help, and some are not.”
Rick: We laughed at that, but actually, I got into it as part of my interest in helping companies that have an environmental impact.
This technology that we’re going to talk about today was very interesting to me. It’s got a big impact on the footprint or carbon footprint out there, and so it was just very interesting. It just so happens it was in the pipeline industry and grew up around it. Ended back up there after a lot of years.
Russel: I think probably about 50 percent of the people working in pipeline inherited it. It’s a unique business. It’s great people. If you like driving around in a pickup truck and seeing the country, it’s a great career for that, for sure. There’s a lot of work that’s just that way.
I asked you to come on to talk about methane capture versus venting. Probably a good way to dive into this a little bit is just talk a little bit of how you got interested and how you guys got started in methane capture.
Rick: Sure. Onboard Dynamics was actually spun out of Oregon State University in 2013. We were working on natural gas compression technology back then. The company was funded by the Department of the Energy’s Advanced Research Projects Agency and Energy. It’s called ARPAE, for a lot of people that remember that.
The project that we were working on was addressing the critical lack of infrastructure in refueling of natural gas vehicles. We produced a product, a mobile fueling product, that fulfilled that need and is out in the market right now. We do actively sell that for filling vehicles.
The way this product came about is, just by listening to our customers and the voice of our customers, and being in the right place at the right time with the right solution, about two years ago, one of our major natural gas companies came to us and said, “We’d really like to use your natural gas compressor to do pipeline evacuations.”
We set up a project with them and used that current product that we were using to do that pipeline evacuation. That led to this new product line called the GoVAC FLEX. What the FLEX does is it actually monitors the incoming line, the suction side of it, and brings the suction side down to near zero, and then compresses out to another pipeline or a tube trailer, up to a maximum of 3,600 PSI.
That’s the history of the product, how we got here. Started in 2013. I came on board in 2016, and then this product came out a few years ago.
Russel: I don’t know a lot about methane fueling for vehicles. Maybe it’d be helpful to just talk a little bit about that equipment and how it works. How do you take natural gas and get it into a tank to run an internal combustion engine?
Rick: Sure. What our system does, it’s a mobile platform. What it does, is it takes the gas from the pipeline. It’s usually a low pressure source at that point, in someone’s yard or something like that. It’s 20 to 30 psi coming into the compressor. The compressor takes that natural gas, compresses it, and puts it in the storage tank of the vehicle.
Then the vehicle uses that natural gas for its fuel source. Instead of gasoline or propane, it uses natural gas to fuel the vehicle. It’s used on a lot of heavy-duty vehicles, garbage haulers, and buses. Larger vehicles are really a good sweet spot for natural gas and the natural gas fueling.
Russel: Basically, you pick the gas up off of a standard house line, and…
Rick: Usually, it’s a little larger than that, but yeah, that’s basically it. It’s off a meter set off of a house line or a line that’s in a yard somewhere at a building, where they have…
Russel: Yeah, more volume than maybe what you have at a house.
Russel: Similar kinds of pressures, hence low pressure. Then what kind of pressure are you compressing up to to put it into a vehicle?
Rick: The vehicle tanks are standard at 3,600 psi. It’ll take it from the 20 psi coming out to 3,600. The way this product works, it’s a behind the fence fueling solution. Vehicles come in at night with 1,000 psi in them or something like that. They park the vehicle, hook them up, the compressor kicks on automatically, and fills the vehicle up to 3,600. They come back in the morning, get in the vehicle, and it’s ready to go.
Russel: Really, not much different than a standard air compressor you might use at your house in terms of just general functionality.
Rick: Very similar, yeah.
Russel: Then, if I’m going to do pipeline evacuation, how is that different than refueling?
Rick: Sure. On a pipeline, these pipelines are taken out of service, and that seems to be the common solution for this. They’re going to take that pipe down to a very low pressure. It’s got its operating pressure. Let’s just say 200, 300 psi. They’re going to take that line out of service. They want to do maintenance on it or something.
They need to draw that gas down. They’ve got to get the gas out of there one way or the other. There’s a couple ways to do that. You can vent it straight to the atmosphere, the natural gas. You can flare it, so you burn it, turn it into carbon, and the carbon goes into the atmosphere.
Or you take that gas, and you put it into a different source. That’s what this product’s designed around. It takes the methane out of the pipeline, so it’s running at 300 psi. You’re going to drop that down to near zero and put that into either an adjoining pipeline, or around a stop, or around a valve to the side that’s still in service.
Or you can actually put that into a mobile tube trailer and use that tube trailer somewhere else. If they’re at the end of the line, and there’s no other source, with our product, you can actually take that, put it into a tube trailer, compress that up to 3,600 psi, and then use that for other services, whether it be a virtual pipeline, or if it’s going to be injected back into a pipeline somewhere else, or used as a fuel source for vehicles.
Russel: In my world, I’d be very familiar with needing to blow down a meter run. You go out to a city gate. You’ve got maybe an eight-inch or a six-inch line that’s feeding. It’s probably somewhere between 175 and 325 pressure on the feed side. I’ve got a meter run, typically upstream of the regulator.
Then I’ve got a regulator, so I guess what I would do is I would just isolate that, but I’d have some way to take the gas and move it from one side to the other. I guess you could do that with a bypass.
Rick: You can do that with a bypass, but…
Russel: I’ve got to evacuate the gas that’s actually in the meter tube.
Rick: Yeah. If you’re going to do that, you’re probably taking a section of line out, so there’s probably a set of valves in there somewhere on each side of the section. You shut the valves off, isolate the line, and then you’d go around the valve. You’d put the suction on the side that you want to evacuate and then put the discharge on the side that’s still in service.
You’d draw that line down across the valve, and that’d be a pipe-to-pipe transfer is what we call that. You’d bring that from your operating pressure of, like you were saying, 190 or something like that to 350 or whatever, you’ll bring that down to near zero. You can actually bring it down to zero, but we don’t recommend that.
The equipment’s capable of doing that. We don’t recommend that, because if there’s any air in there, if you have any leaks in the line – and a lot of times, these are old lines that you’re taking out of service – if there’s any type of leaks in there or anything, you have the chance of pulling air in.
You don’t want that air in your line, because you’re going to transfer that to the other pipeline as well. Just for safety reasons…
Russel: What kind of pressure do you take it to down to typically?
Rick: We usually take it down to one or two psi.
Russel: So slightly above atmosphere, so you still have positive pressure on the line.
Rick: Well, psig, so gauge pressure.
Rick: One to two psig, yeah.
Russel: Right. That’s all straightforward. What kind of connection do you need to the pipeline? Is it a typical one-inch threadolet that you need, or is it something special or different than that?
Rick: We can connect to just about anything. Our line that’s coming to that connection is an inch-and-a-half natural gas hose. Then we’ll nipple it down or nipple it up to whatever we want. We’ve hooked to four-inch risers before. You take a four-inch into an inch and a half to bring it to us.
Then on the discharge side, that’s a half-inch line on the discharge. Then you just connect that into whatever stack you need to to connect that back into the line. Our hose lengths are an inch and a half and a half inch.
Russel: I’m trying to think, it’s not uncommon in a meter tube to have a place to vent. That, to me, is pretty straightforward. Normally, it’s a quarter-turn valve on a one-inch threadolet with a little pump on it. When you start going downstream of the valve, how common is it that existing pipes already have a place to reinject?
Rick: That threadolet that you’re talking about, usually, there’s two of those on both sides of that valve or around that valve. You just connect to both sides of that. It can be a one-inch line. You’re just going to have a little restriction there, so your flow will be a little bit less.
Russel: I guess the point being that you’ve got to have a way. If you’re going to do pipe to pipe, you’ve got to have a place to take it to. I guess the alternative would be you just take it out, put it in a tube bundle, and when you’re done, you put it back into the meter tube.
Rick: Yeah, that’s definitely an option to do with this. Most operators and most gas line companies that we’ve worked with, pipeline companies that we’ve worked with, they’ll make a connection for this. There’s either a valve sitting there, a smaller inch valve sitting on the top of it that they use for venting, because they’re going to vent it right now, anyway. That’s their normal procedure of venting.
Whatever they’re going to vent out of, that’s what we connect to. Then go from that vent to our compressor, and then compress it to whatever is on the other side.
Russel: Sure. Let’s talk a little bit about the compressor and how it works, because I’m sitting here, and I’m thinking about the fueling issue. If I’m going to take 20 pounds of gas, and I’m going to move it all the way up to 3,000 pounds plus, that’s multiple-stage compression, I would assume.
Rick: Yeah, this is a four-stage compressor. It’s designed around a V8 engine. The design takes a V8 engine, and basically, you split that engine in half. Half of the engine is used for power, and the other half we use for compression. We remove the pistons on one side. We put a crosshead piston on top of it. It’s called a crosshead compressor.
Half of that engine just now became a compressor, so you have four stages of compression there. The first stage is about the size of a normal cylinder. The fourth stage is about the size of your thumb. You reduce the volume of gas, and that’s how you get your compression.
The outlet pressure is up to 3,600 psi, but it’s really based on what your back pressure is. If you’re pushing on a line that’s at 300 psi, your fourth stage is only going to be at 300 psi. It’s not going to be at 3,600. It will raise, as you compress, if you’re coming into a tube trailer or something like that.
That’s a differentiator for us. It really allows us to come into a volume and fill that volume to a higher pressure, which some other technologies out there don’t do.
Russel: Is the driver side running off of natural gas, or is it running off of standard fuel?
Rick: It’s running off natural gas. It’s actually running off the gas from the pipeline. We do have some storage on there that allows us to run the engine, to get it up and going, get it warmed up, and things. Once the system is actually running and compressing, it’s running on the gas that it’s pulling from the line.
There’s no other equipment that’s required. It’s completely self contained. The power package is there. The compressor is there. All the cooling is there. Everything is together on one trailer. It’s not multiples, multiple trailers, and so forth.
Russel: What’s the footprint of the trailer? How big is it?
Rick: It’s about 16 feet long, and it’s 8 foot wide. It can be hauled by a three-quarter-ton pickup. It’s about 5,700 pounds, I think, total weight. You’re hauling it with a three-quarter-ton pickup, half-ton pickup.
Russel: Right. It’s interesting, because as I was visualizing this as you’re talking about it, and I have some familiarity with the kind of air compressors used around construction. They’re a tad smaller than this.
Rick: They are. They’re just a little bit smaller than this. This is just a little bit bigger, but still very maneuverable to get into very tight spots. It’s very quiet. It runs at under 80 dB, so you can run it in a neighborhood next to a house. We’ve done that before, and it’s actually very quiet.
They’ve put cones on it and put it in the street, so you can sit it on the street and run it. It’s not a semi-trailer type of compressor. It’s actually very compact. Our operators, gas companies, really like it for the flexibility and…
Russel: The trailer sounds like it’s got about the footprint of the pickup.
Rick: It does. It’s a little bit shorter than a full-size pickup.
Russel: Yeah, interesting. I guess the other question that comes up for me around all of this is how long do you have to run this device to evacuate versus how long would it take to just vent it?
Rick: The venting is pretty quick, to be honest with you. That’s the way the world’s worked for a long time. They just open the valve and vent it to the atmosphere, and that’s a quick way to do it. With this type of technology, or any of the technologies that are out there that are capturing this gas, it’s going to take a longer time to do that.
Our unit runs about 150 mcf a day is the throughput on it, or about 100 scfm is the flow rate on it. It all depends on the size and the length of the pipe. We’ve got a full set of graphs on our website and everything that’ll talk to you about how long it takes to vent an 8-inch pipe, or 12-inch pipe, or whatever, to take that methane capture that, and put it back into another line.
It is pretty linear. It’s not really an effect on what you’re compressing to, because it’s a true compressor. It’s not a pump or a densifier. With the compression process, whatever goes into your first-stage cylinder from your feed is going to come out. That’s going to be your true flow, not based on what the back pressures are and what you’re having to push against. Being a true four-stage compressor, it’ll compress at a linear rate.
Russel: I guess, if I’m an operator, and I’m considering this, there’s some benefits. One is I’m not venting to the atmosphere. I don’t have to calculate all that and report all that. I’m saving the gas, so I’m not paying for gas just to vent it to the atmosphere. I don’t know how much of a value that is.
I think those are probably the primary benefits. I think there’s a little bit more complexity around scheduling to do some of your service work that would require venting or require evacuation of the line.
Rick: Yeah, I think the…
Russel: Am I understanding that correctly, or is there other considerations?
Rick: I think one of the things that everyone acknowledges is that we’re getting tougher regulations around the venting of methane, not only from the environmental agencies but from the public as well. They don’t want to see gas companies venting that methane straight to the atmosphere when they can capture that and use it.
We saw that in the PIPES Act that was signed into law in 2020. It created dozens of regulations and mandates, including the requirement to report on the technologies and practices to prevent and minimize the release of this gas, into what your replacement and maintenance operations are wrapped around that.
A year ago, we saw a bill introduced into Congress to levy fees on methane release. We’re seeing more and more of that now, I believe. I don’t have the current, but the recent EPA requirements on the EPA act, IRA Act, came out to do that as well. I think there’s more and more regulations that are coming.
It’s not as cheap to do this. It’s not inexpensive. It’s very inexpensive to let that methane go. There’s the value of the methane. It’s a lot more than it used to be over the last year with what’s going on overseas and everything.
Russel: Yeah, well, it’s good timing for it.
Rick: Yeah, but still, when you take a look at the costs for doing a project like this, they’re going to be higher. I think the stuff that’s coming down for regulations is what everybody really needs to embrace. We should take aggressive steps to eliminate this methane release into the atmosphere.
It’s not good, and we need to take the lead, especially when solutions are now fully commercialized and available to do this capture. I think it’s important that we stress this and we use those practices.
Russel: Yeah, as you were talking here, Rick, I went to your website, and I’m looking at the charts you have of evacuation times. I’ve got to say, those times are a lot less than what I was thinking before I went and looked.
Rick: Oh, OK.
Russel: You’re basically showing 1,000 foot of pipe from 200 psi down to atmosphere, about 15 minutes for a 4-inch pipe, and about, oh, slightly less than two hours for a 12-inch pipe, for 1,000 foot of pipe.
Rick: Right, yep.
Russel: That’s pretty impressive, actually.
Rick: Yeah, when you talk about how long it takes, it is a cost, because you have people that are there, watching and maintaining and stuff. Venting, it’s going to be quicker. I’ll give up at that point, but this is good technology. It allows us to do this in a pretty timely fashion. It’s very efficient.
The technology that’s wrapped around this is pretty advanced with the process of how you do this. The unit’s got a nice HMI on it. You go up to the back of it, you tell it what your minimum suction pressure is, you tell it what your maximum discharge pressure is, so you don’t over-pressurize your pipe, basically, you hit the button, and it runs.
It’s pretty straightforward. It’s a pretty simple technology to operate. We’ve got a really good data-capturing tool, and it’s got two-way communications, cellular communications, so it pushes all the data up to the cloud. That allows us to do your environmental impact reports on your project, how much gas was captured, how long it took.
It talks about the fuel costs of the engine, because the engine burns some of that fuel, about seven percent of what it compresses. It shows what the carbon footprint is and the amount of methane that was saved. That reporting package is also really important for these new regulations that are coming down the pipe to show, “This is my project, and this is how much my carbon footprint was saved, how many tons of methane.”
Russel: Yeah, it’s interesting to me. As I’m sitting here and looking at what you have on your website, I always try to put a picture together in my mind when I’m having one of these conversations. I could see where there’s other applications for this beyond just venting.
I think you talked about one of those, but the idea of having a device like this where I can pull gas off my system and get it into a tube trailer, because I know of a number of utilities, particularly up in the northern states, where they have pockets where they need to boost pressure.
They use those tube trailers, and boy, it’s a lot easier to do that if you can put your own gas in them.
Rick: Absolutely. One of the nice things about this product is its mobile ability. You can get it closer to where you want to do your filling of your tube trailers for your virtual pipeline. You pull off the line at a meter set somewhere that’s out there. It doesn’t have to be at one of your compressor stations.
Pull it off the meter set, put it into the tube trailers, and then take your tube trailers out to the area that’s remote that you want to run your virtual pipeline from. That’s a very common use of one of our products, the GoFLO, actually.
Russel: Yeah, and I would think, for situations where you’re doing maintenance and repair on your pipelines and you need to maintain deliverability, or where you’ve got peak demands, and you need to maintain deliverability, the ability to fill that tube trailer up someplace closer is a big deal.
Rick: Yes, it’s a definite advantage of this product and the mobility of it being on a self-contained trailer and everything being there. That’s a real key point with our product, being self contained. It doesn’t require air compressors or generators or anything like that. It’s all in one package.
Russel: Rick, how common is this capability in the gas industry today? When you guys first reached out to me, and we first started talking, I guess I was a bit surprised that there was already somebody in this business, because I know it’s been talked about, but I didn’t know that anybody was already out there doing it.
Rick: Yeah, there are some competitors of ours that are out there that are doing this. A lot of them are different sizes. There’s some very large systems that are out there that are on semi-trailers. They work on very large transmission lines. Those are one segment of our market.
There’s another segment that are very, very small that are used for house lines and things like that. In this spot, the spot that we are at with this product, which is the GoVAC FLEX, there’s only a couple of competitors that are there. They’ve been out in the market for a while.
The big differentiators between us in these product lines is our self-contained ability, our ability to run on the natural gas that we compress and that we move onto the other pipeline, not requiring another fuel source, not requiring another power source. The throughput on our system is rather unique, where we don’t have these pressure differentials that other companies have where you can only go up so high if you’re drawing down so low, because like I said, this is a compressor.
It’s not a pump or a densifier. It’s a true compressor that’s there. It’s an integrated product.
Russel: I guess what I was trying to ask, Rick, is how long has this kind of technology been available in the market, just the idea of capturing and compressing vented gas? Has this been around for a while and I just didn’t know, or is this relatively new?
Rick: It’s been around for several years. I think it’s just now coming to the forefront of natural gas companies with the regulations that are coming down and how they’re going to work with these regulations. It has been around for several years.
Russel: In the scale of natural gas, and how quickly we adopt technology, several years is pretty new.
Rick: Yeah. [laughs] That’s true.
Russel: Just in the overall scheme of things. I think it’s awesome that you guys are out there and you’re doing this, because certainly, it’s an area where, given regulation and the need to reduce methane emissions, it’s a big deal.
Russel: Rick, what do you think every pipeliner ought to know about this process? What should they take away in terms of their learning and understanding about the idea of capturing gas versus venting it?
Rick: I think the important point on this is the ease of use of this. This is a pretty straightforward system to use. It’s not complicated. Hook it up, do your evacuation, shut it down, get it out of the way, and be able to do your maintenance or whatever you’re doing on the line. Very straightforward.
The second thing is the automation portion of it, to be able to bring up data. You’re going to need this data. You’re going to need the reporting. The requirements are coming for regulations that are going to require you to do this reporting. That’s a very key point that we have that.
This is a good thing to do for the environment. We need to do this for the environment. It’s a big impact, methane releases on the environment, and this is a good way to alleviate that.
Russel: Yeah, I think that’s a great place to leave it right there. I’ve said this on a number of other podcasts, and this is beginning to become more of a theme. I know that a lot of people, when they hear about ESG, and they hear about methane emissions and all these kinds of things, we tend to get a little bowed up about it, because it’s a different way of doing business, and we haven’t had to do it before.
I do a lot of work in the Boy Scouts, and there’s a thing that the Boy Scouts push, which is, “Leave no trace.” Really, this is part of us in the energy business of doing a better job of leaving no trace.
Rick: I completely agree, yep. Excellent.
Russel: Look, I really appreciate it. I’ve learned a ton. I have a whole new idea about what a capability is that I really didn’t understand was out there. I appreciate your time, and thanks for coming on.
Rick: Thank you, Russel. I appreciate the time here as well, and have a great day.
Russel: I hope you enjoyed this week’s episode of the Pipeliners Podcast and our conversation with Rick. Just a reminder before you go. You should register to win our customized Pipeliners Podcast YETI tumbler. Simply visit PipelinePodcastNetwork.com/Win and enter yourself in the drawing.
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Transcription by CastingWords